# Parse errors as type errors

Binary numbers are so ubiquitous in Computer Science that programming languages often have special notations for them. The most popular one is arguably hexadecimal notation. It is close to binary representation, since each digit corresponds exactly to four bits, but it is much more compact. Unfortunately, Coq has no built-in support for hexadecimal notation. While the language does allow the user to extend its syntax, this mechanism is not powerful enough to implement this feature. Coq's own built-in decimal notation, for instance, is a special case coded directly in OCaml. In this post, I will show a way to circumvent this problem by using Coq itself to parse base 16 numbers.

The first thing we will need is a Coq function to interpret hexadecimal notation. As we've seen previously, writing such a function is straightforward. The code that follows is pretty much the same as in our past example, but reworked for base 16.

Open Scope char_scope.

Definition hexDigitToNat (c : ascii) : option nat :=
match c with
| "0" => Some 0
| "1" => Some 1
| "2" => Some 2
| "3" => Some 3
| "4" => Some 4
| "5" => Some 5
| "6" => Some 6
| "7" => Some 7
| "8" => Some 8
| "9" => Some 9
| "a" | "A" => Some 10
| "b" | "B" => Some 11
| "c" | "C" => Some 12
| "d" | "D" => Some 13
| "e" | "E" => Some 14
| "f" | "F" => Some 15
| _ => None
end.

Open Scope string_scope.

Fixpoint readHexNatAux (s : string) (acc : nat) : option nat :=
match s with
| "" => Some acc
| String c s' =>
match hexDigitToNat c with
| Some n => readHexNatAux s' (16 * acc + n)
| None => None
end
end.

Definition readHexNat (s : string) : option nat :=

Our function behaves just as expected.

Proof. reflexivity. Qed.

## Convenient notation

Now that we have a Coq function that reads hexadecimal numbers, we can use it as our notation. There is a small problem, though. Since readHexNat returns an option nat, we can't just use it where a natural number is expected, because the types do not match. In regular functional programming languages such as Haskell or OCaml, one could just raise a runtime error when such a parse error is found. This is not possible in Coq, since all functions must be total. Instead of doing that, we return a default number when an error is found.

Module FirstTry.

Definition x (s : string) : nat :=
| Some n => n
| None => 0
end.

This function allows us to write numbers with nice syntax.

Example e1 : x"ff" = 255.
Proof. reflexivity. Qed.

Example e2 : x"a0f" = 2575.
Proof. reflexivity. Qed.

Though slightly awkward, this notation is not too different from the usual 0x notation present in C and many other languages.
In spite of being simple, this approach has a significant drawback when compared to languages that understand base 16 numbers naturally. In those languages, a misspelled number will most likely result in a parse error, which will probably be caught soon and fixed. Here, on the other hand, we chose to ignore such errors. Suppose, for instance, that we mistakingly type 10 with a capital "O" instead of "0" in our code. Our number would now be understood as 0.

Example e3 : x"1O" = 0.
Proof. reflexivity. Qed.

Such errors may not be noticed immediately, and will probably manifest themselves as problems in other parts of the program, making it hard to track the real cause. It may seem at this point that we would either have to accept this limitation and live with it, or need to patch the Coq source code and implement the new notation by hand. Luckily, a sane solution exists.

End FirstTry.

## Putting the type system to work

There are two key insights that we need here. First, types in Coq can be manipulated pretty much like any other value in the language. In particular, this means that functions can take types as arguments and return other types. This is not too strange: the familiar list type constructor, for instance, is just a function that takes a type as input and returns the type of lists of that type.

Check list.

(* list
: Type -> Type *)

As a more interesting example, one can write a function that takes some piece of data as input and returns a Coq type.

Definition natOrString (b : bool) : Type :=
if b then nat else string.

This idea might seem odd when seen for the first time, but it enables very powerful techniques when combined with a second key feature. Coq is a dependently typed language, which means that the return type of a function can depend on values passed to it as arguments.

Definition alwaysZero (b : bool) : natOrString b :=
match b with
| true => 0
| false => "0"
end.

Definition z1 : nat := alwaysZero true.
Definition z2 : string := alwaysZero false.

The Coq type checker accepts the first definition because it knows that alwaysZero returns a nat when its argument is true, and similarly for the second one.
Using this idea, we define a function that extracts the value of an option when it has the form Some a, but returns an element of some other arbitrary type otherwise:

Definition forceOption A Err (o : option A) (err : Err) : match o with
| Some _ => A
| None => Err
end :=
match o with
| Some a => a
| None => err
end.

The type signature of this function looks weird, but nothing fundamentally complicated is hapenning here. To see how this function could help us solve our problem, suppose that the Coq type checker is able to detect statically that the o argument passed to forceOption is Some a. In this case, the result type of the computation will be exactly A, and we will be able to use it like any other value of A:

Definition f1 : nat := forceOption nat bool (Some 42) false.

If, on the other hand, a None is passed to the function, the return type will be Err, which is used to signal the occurrence of an error. Thus, if Err and A are not the same, type checking will fail and a type error will be issued.

(* Definition f2 : nat := forceOption nat bool None false. *)
(* Toplevel input, characters 43-74:
Error: The term "forceOption nat bool None false" has type
"bool" while it is expected to have type "nat". *)

With forceOption in hand, it is easy to solve our problem. We begin by defining a singleton type that represents type errors.

Inductive parseError := ParseError.

Now, we are ready for our second attempt.

Module SecondTry.

Definition x (s : string) :=
forceOption nat parseError (readHexNat s) ParseError.

Our new notation behaves as expected on the previous examples. The type annotations below (: nat) are not mandatory; they are just there to illustrate that the types match.

Example e1 : (x"ff" : nat) = 255.
Proof. reflexivity. Qed.

Example e2 : (x"a0f" : nat) = 2575.
Proof. reflexivity. Qed.

A parse error will result in a None, which will be translated to a parseError by forceOption, and therefore will cause a type error when used as a nat.

Example e3 : (x"1O" : parseError) = ParseError.
Proof. reflexivity. Qed.

End SecondTry.

## Summary

We've seen that the expressivity of Coq's type system makes it possible to encode tricks that would be unnatural or just impossible in other languages.
As discussed above, in OCaml or Haskell one could trigger an error when the program encounters an unexpected situation, such as getting a None after parsing a number. While better than just returning a nonsensical result, like we did in our first attempt, this solution still only reveals the error at runtime. Using Coq's dependent types, we were able to detect such errors as type errors at compile time, without resorting to any external features.